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Specification for Construction and Equipment

Department of Railways and Canals Government of Canada, 1897

he Railway shall be a single track line with guage four feet – eight and a half inches (4' – 8½") with necessary sidings.

The alignment, gradient and curvature shall be the best the physical features of the country will admit of, the maximum grade not to exceed one hundered and six (106') feet to the mile, and the curvature to be of not less radius than nine hundred and fifty-five (955') feet excepting at such points in which it is found upon making the location survey that it is not possible to secure a grade within the maximum limit given herein, or a curve of the minimum radius given herein, as the case may be, of which the Minister of Railways and Canals shall be the judge and upon his written authority only can the above limit be exceeded, and upon a line of location to be appoved by the Governor in Council.

In all wooded sections, the land must be cleared to a width of not less than 50 feet on each side of the centre line, except at the Station Grounds where it must be not less than 50 feet on each side of the centre line, and no tree may be allowed to stand within such a distance from the centre line, that if it fell any portion of it would reach the track. All brush and logs must be completely burnt and none thrown on the adjacent lands.

All stumps must be grubbed out within the limits of cuttings under three feet in depth or embankments less than two feet in height.

All stumps must be close cut where embankments are less than four feet and more than two feet in height.

In settled districts the railway must be enclosed within substantially built legal fences of wire, with the necessary gates and crossings to accomodate the farmers.

Road crossings with sign boards shall be provided at all existing public highways crossing the railway at rail level, and cattle guards where fencing is necessary.

The width of cuttings at formation level shall be not less than twenty (20') feet, embankments not less than fifteen (15') feet when settled in place. The slopes of cuttings and embankments shall be not less than one and a half (1½') feet horizontal to the (1') foot vertical in earth and one (1') foot horizontal to four (4') feet vertical rock cuttings, excepting in cases where the character of the material or the height of the slopes is in the opinion of the Minister of Railways such as to warrant a departure.

Efficient drainage must be provided by open ditches and underdrains.

All bridges, culverts and other structures must be of ample size and strength for the purposes intended. Piers and abutments of Truss Bridges must be of massive masonry, well driven Tamarac, White Pine, Douglas Fir, or Cedar Piles, or of cribwork of Tamarac, White Pine, Douglas Fir, or Cedar Timber, resting on a solid natural foundation, or on a foundation fo well driven piles, as described above, filled with stone. Culverts under embankments must be of well built strong secondary class masonry, iron pipes, double strength verified clay sulvert pipes, or of durable materials, permanent in character and equal in every essental particular to the best description of like work employed in similar Railway work in the Dominion.

Open or Beam Culverts in embankments shall be of strong second class masonry or of Cedar, Douglas Fir or Tamarac timber not less than 10" x 10" square except the track stringers which must be of sound White Pine, Douglas Fir, Tamarac or White Oak timber not less than 12" x 12". The spans shall not exceed 14 feet; and they shall be constructed on a plan approved by the Minister of Railways and Canals. Superstructures of Truss Bridges must be of sound White Pine, Douglas Fir, or Georgia Pitch Pine Timber.

The rails shall be of steel weighing no less than 56 lbs. per linear yard of approved Section, and with approved Fish Plates.

Source: Department of Railways and Canals, Government of Canada, 1897.